jueves, 22 de noviembre de 2012

Important Terms of War World I (Canadian)

 1.- Billy Bishop
-          He was a Canadian pilot
-          Pilots were like heroes and they flew with out parachutes
-          Bishop was officially credited with 72 victories, making him the top Canadian ace in World War I.

2.- Sam Huges
-          Canadian minister of militia
-          He ordered a large training camp to be built at Valcartier, Quebec.
-          He insisted on using the Ross Rifle (nº22)
-          He failed to give French Canadians a stake in the war.

3.- Halifax Explosion
-          The city of Halifax, Canada, was devastated by the detonation of the SS Mont-Blanc, a French cargo ship that was fully loaded with wartime explosives.
-          The Mont-Blanc detonated after colliding with another ship.
-          About 2,000 people were killed by debris, fires, and collapsed buildings, and it is estimated that around 9,000 were injured.
-          It was the largest man-made explosion in recorded history

4.- Trench Warfare
-          The trenches were the front lines, the most dangerous places.
-          Trenches were dug. There were many types depending on the local conditions.
-          Living in a trench was very hard. There were lice and rats and often no food enough.

5.- Vimy Ridge
-          It was a battle in Nord-Pas-de-Calais, France
-          It was the high point of Canadian military achievement during WWI.
-          This area was very important for German army because of its localization.
-          Canada was successful through the "creeping barrage": a mixture of technical and tactical innovation, meticulous planning, powerful artillery support and extensive training, as well as the failure of the German Army to properly apply the new German defence.

6.- Enemy aliens
-          Anyone who had not yet gained Canadian citizenship.
-          Anyone who was a former citizen of a country at war with Canada.
-          By 1914, 170.000 Ukrainians lived in Canada. Many of them from the Austro-Hungarian Empire. When war was declared against this Empire, they were viewed with increased  suspicion.

7.- Victory Bonds
-         The government needed money to finance the war effort. It borrowed money by selling savings bonds for a certain amount and after a certain period of time the owner of the bond could cash them for the face value.
-          Lots of posters about Victory Bonds were produced as propaganda.

8.- Convoys
-          An accompanying and protecting force, as of ships or troops.
-          Canada send convoys with munitions and food to Europe.
-          First with Shell Committee and after with the Imperial Munitions.

9.- Canada’s 100 Days
-          Canada’s 100 Days was a series of attacks made along the Western Front by the Canadian Corps during the Hundred Days Offensive of World War I.
-          During this time, the Canadian Corps fought at Amiens, Arras, the Hindenburg Line, the Canal du Nord, Bourlon Wood, Cambrai, Denain, Valenciennes and finally at Mons, on the final day of the First World War, where had been also the scene of the first battle between British and German troops in 1914.
-          Canada advanced 130km and captured 31,537 prisoners, 623 guns, 2842 machine guns and 336 mortars.

10.- Treaty of Versailles
-          It was a treaty between the countries what were participated in the WWI.
-          Germany was humbled and was forced to accept all blame for the war and to pay heavy war reparations.
-          Also, it restricted German military forces to avoid another war in the future.

11.- League of Nations
-          The League of Nations was an intergovernmental organization founded as a result of the Paris Peace Conference that ended the First World War.
-          It was the first international organization whose principal mission was to maintain world peace.
-          It also takes over labour conditions, just treatment of native inhabitants, human and drug trafficking, arms trade, global health, prisoners of war, and protection of minorities in Europe.

12.- Gavrilo Princip
-          Gavrilo Princip was the Serbian man who assassinated Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria and his wife, Sophie, in Sarajevo.
-          This assassination is that led to the First World War.

13.- Arthur Currie
-          He was a Canadian general during World War I.
-          Arthur Currie became the first Canadian commander of the four divisions of the unified Canadian Corps of the Canadian Expeditionary Force.
-          He is generally considered to be among the most capable commanders of the Western Front, and one of the finest commanders in Canadian military history.

14.- Conscription
-          Compulsory enlistment for state service, typically into the military.
-          Prime Minister Borden declared that conscription would never be necessary, but by 1916 the flood of volunteers had slowed to a trickle.
-          Farmers and French Canadian were against conscription.
-          It separated French and English Canadian.

15.- John McCrae
-          He was a sergeant
-          Half of his men were killed or wounded. While he was waiting for the wounded to arrive he wrote “In Flanders Fields”.
-          This poem became the most popular of the Great War and made the the poppy

16.- Triple Entente
-          Alliance system
-          Formed by Britain and his allies (Commonwealth), France and Russia, mainly.
-          They won the WWI.

17.- Triple Alliance
-          Alliance system
-          Formed by Germany, Italy and Austria-Hungary, mainly.
-          They lost the WWII.

19.- Alliances
-          A close association of nations or other groups, formed to advance common interests or cause
-          During WWI there were two main alliances:
o   Triple Entente
o   Triple Alliance
-          Canada was in an alliance, the Commomwealth.

20.- Imperialism
-          Extending the rule of one country over other countries or territories (ex. Colonies).
-          By acquiring territory nations raise their status and increase their economy capacity.

21.- Nationalism
-          There are two types of nationalism:
o   Patriotic: devotion and loyalty to one’s own nation / country.
§  It was evident in Britain, Serbia, France, Germany and Italy. They want to increase their power through expanding their territory. It is related with imperialism.
o   Ethic: the desire of the people to preserve their own language, culture, religions,etc. and / or the desire for independence.
§  It existed in Austria-Hungary and the Ottoman Empire. They had many ethnic groups within their boundaries. Many classified as “second class citizens”. They desired to become independent.

22.- Ross Rifle
-          It was a weapon that Huges insisted on using it.
-          Advantages:
o   Excellent for sharp shooting.
o   Manufactured in Canada.
-          Disadvantages:
o   Useless in the trenches.
o   It was long and easily jammed by dirty. Often the firing mechanism overheated and seized up.
-          Ross Rifle was just one example of Canadian equipment that failed the test of war.

23.- Communism
-          It is a revolutionary socialist movement to create a classless, money-less, and stateless social order structured upon common ownership of the means of production, as well as a social, political and economic ideology that aims at the establishment of this social order.
-          In March 1917 Russia became a state founded on communism
-          Russia communist revolutionary was Vladimir Lenin.

24.- Victoria Cross
-          The British Commonwealth’s highest military honour.
-          Nine Canadian soldiers were awarded with it at Passchendaele battle.

25.- Trench Foot
-          It is a medical condition caused by prolonged exposure of the feet to damp, unsanitary, and cold conditions. It is one of many immersion foot syndromes.
-          The use of the word trench in the name of this condition is a reference to trench warfare, mainly associated with World War I.
-          Your feet swell to two or three times their normal size and go completely dead. Sometimes the feet and legs were amputated.

26.- No Man’s Land
-          The area of land between two enemy trenches to which neither side wished to move openly or to seize due to fear of being attacked by the enemy in the process.
-          Soldiers lay wounded in no-man’s land could not be rescued.

27.- Passchendaele
-          It was a battle at Passchendaele, Belgium, the same front that Canada had defended in Ypres battle. Also known as the 3º Batlle of Ypres.
-          German army started winning but by the time reinforcements came. Only 1/5  of the attack force was still alive.
-          November, 15 the fighting stopped. The British had gained just 6 km.
-          Nine Canadian soldiers were awarded the Victoria Cross.

28.- Propaganda
-          It is the organized dissemination of information to influence thoughts, beliefs, feelings and actions. It ensured that the people only got to know what their governments wanted them to know.
-          Information on propaganda were controlled.
-          During WWI propaganda was used to:
o   Encouraged young men to enlist
o   Convince Canadian to buy Victoria Bonds to help finance the war.
o   Encourage Canadian to be thrifty and conserve food
o   Urge Canadians to contribute to the Patriotic Fund which provided assistance to the families of men fighting overseas.

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